Photographer's Note

Last week me and my wife were in a trip in Turda - Cluj - Alba Iulia. There are many atractions and old places to be see.

The most fascinating one (from my point of view) is the Salt Mine Turda. The mine is now in rehabilitation, and soon it will be the most atractive salt mine from Romania, as you can see here

A little description of Salt Mine Turda:

Turda's salt deposit has been known and exploited by ancient times, but it was put into systematic operation of the deposit, by underground mining work, during the Roman conquest in Dacia.

The salt was exploited in rooms of 17-34m (56-112 feet) depth and 10-12m (33-39 feet) width, disposed one near the other an separated by a safety consolidation. This system ensured a massive extraction of the salt, but it worked only in those areas where the salt was exploited near the surface. Salt was continuously extracted during the 6 and 9 century, along with other very useful minerals.

The Salt Customs in Turda are mentioned for the first time in 1075 a.d. During the 13 century, Turda's salt mine is mentioned in official documents at the 1st of May 1271, when the mine was offered to the Catholic Church's Transilvanian leaders. These and the bishop of Transilvania subsequently, would get privileges for using the salt from the mine in Turda.

Salt Rooms where built in order to better coordinate the extraction, transportation and storage. According to a report made up by the royal inspectors Paulus Bornemisza and Georgius Wernher in 1552, the main salt room was that in Turda and the salt was extracted form both, "the large" and "the small" mine. As for its quality people would say that salt "is good and solid" (sal ipse bonus et solidus - lat.).

Towards the end of the 17 century and the beginning of the 18 century, the mining in Transilvania revigorates due to some initiatives of the Royal Court in Viena meant to encourage the economy of the province.

The salt was exploited in the same mines that worked previously, but those in Turda were still the most important. The mineralogist Johann Fridwaldszky in his "Mineralogia Magnus Principatus Transilvaniae", published in 1767, stated that "the mines in Turda worth being visited". After a detailed presentation of the bell-shaped mining system as well as the evacuation by vertical transporter, the author relates that the mines in Turda have five important wells: the first one is called "the upper one", the second is "the low one", the third called "Cojocnean", the fourth called "St. Terezia" and the fifth called "Sf. Anton".

The Salt Mine from Turda, known as one of the most important in Transilvania, started to fall into decay after 1840, due to the growing competition with the salt mine in Ocna Mures.

The building of a new transportation gallery (Franz Jozef gallery) was decided in 1853, in order to facilitate the salt transportation to the surface. This gallery is 916.65m lenght. At the same time, the Terezia well was modernized by adding two side rooms to it: Ghizela and Rudolf, the latest running the extraction of the salt. Throughout that time, prisoners were never used as workers (lat.-incisoresm salium). Tha salt was brought to the surface by other workers (lat.-famuli). They used a vertical mechanical transporter. The mines were lighted by candles and tallow rush lights. Explosives were never used for exploitation nor mechanical equipment for cutting tha salt.

Turda Salt Mine ceased its activity in 1932. During the World War II the mine was used as an anti-aircraft shelter.

The microclimate is characterized by yearly variations of the temperature between 11-12 C, an average humidity of 80% the air pressure is between 747-752 mm Hg and the air's moving speed between 0.02-0.7 m/sec. All these factors, the lack of pathogen bacterium and a moderate ionization of the air have their contribution to the wellknown benefic effect over the breathing apparatus.

The mine entered the touristic circuit in 1992.

isabela_sor, csiri has marked this note useful

Photo Information
Viewed: 10098
Points: 4
  • None
Additional Photos by Filip Atanasiu (philip78ro) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 527 W: 89 N: 112] (743)
View More Pictures