Photographer's Note


The Romans constructed numerous aqueducts to supply water . The city of Rome itself was supplied by eleven aqueducts that provided the city with over 1 million cubic meters of water , sufficient to supply 3.5 million people and with combined length of 350 km (260 miles).Most aqueducts were constructed below the surface with only small portions above ground supported by arches. The longest Roman aqueduct, 178km (94 miles) in length, was built to supply the city of Carthage.
Roman aqueducts were built to remarkably fine tolerances, and to a technological standard that was not to be equalled until modern times. Powered entirely by gravity, they transported very large amounts of water very efficiently. Sometimes, where depressions deeper than 50 m had to be crossed, inverted siphons were used to force water uphill. An aqueduct also supplied water for the overshot wheels at Barbegal in Roman Gaul, a complex of water mills being hailed as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world".

Aqua Claudia (Latin, literally "the Claudian water") was an aqueduct which like the Anio Novus was begun by Caligula in 38 A.D. and completed by Claudius in 52. Its main springs, the Caeruleus and Curtius, were situated 300 paces to the left of the thirty-eighth milestone of the Via Sublacensis. After being in use for ten years, the supply failed, and was interrupted for nine years, until Vespasian restored it in 71 and ten years later Titus once more. The channel length was 45-46 miles (ca. 69 km, most of which was underground) in different times and volume at the springs was 191,190 cubic metres in 24 hours. After building the Arcus Neroniani by Nero, one of the branches of the Aqua Claudia, the aqueduct could provide all 14 Roman districts with water. Directly after its filtering tank, near the seventh mile of the Via Latina, it finally emerged on to arches, which increase in height as the ground falls towards the city. It is also one of the two ancient aqueducts that flowed through the Porta Maggiore, the other being the Anio Novus.

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Additional Photos by Giorgio Clementi (Clementi) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 3694 W: 437 N: 9370] (52514)
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