Photographer's Note

The beginning of the settlement and fortified keep is dated at IX and X century when the area was ruled by Piasts Mieszko I of Poland and later Boles³aw I the Brave[1]. The Piasts had been established as dukes by the emperors Otto. The Piasts and Boleslaw especially sought to enlargen their territory widely by conquests.

The fortified keep had grown to the size of town during the rule of Boles³aw Wysoki Zachowane wzmianki informuj± o istnieniu kasztelani i osady typu miejskiego during the rule of Duke of Wroc³aw Boles³aw I the Tall. The town received city rights in 1235. After 1281 it became the seat of regional Duchy and title of local ruler Boles³aw was "ja¶nie o¶wiecony Boles³aw, ksi±¿ê Toszka" (the enlightened Boles³aw, Duke of Toszek).

In the 1300s the originally Piast settlement passed to imperial Habsburgs. In 1536, the city received Magdeburg rights from King Ferdinand I (later Emperor). In 1593 Rudolf II sold the castle and the area to Freiherr von Redern auf Groß Strehlitz. It was owned by Joseph von Eichendorff from 1791 to 1797.

Like many other areas in Silesia, Toszek area was subjected to Germanisation when Silesian dukes became indedendent from Poland[2].

Tost burned down on 18 August 1677, and was looted in 1807.

On 20 March 1921 during the voting a majority of inhabitants voted to remain in Germany rather than be moved to Poland (1348 or 86% vs. 217 or 13,8 %, at 97,4 % turnout). During Kristallnacht Toszek Jews were sent to concentration camps were later they all were murdered[3].

After the Second World War a Soviet NKVD camp was established in the city where between June-December 1945 about 3000 incarcerated people died. About 1000 prisoners were from Silesia including Breslau but since July 1945 the NKWD brought in thousands more prisoners from the Bautzen area of Saxony. Sybille Krägel [4] from Saxony, who's father died in the Tost prison and others traced the prisoner lists and over 4500 are identified by now with 800 more yet unidentified, also see Soviet NKVD[5] A a memorial to NKVD victims is placed in Toszek

Die Stadt wurde wohl schon im 12. Jahrhundert gegründet; die erste Erwähnung, die sich auf die Kirche des heiligen Petrus in Tossecz (so die damalige Schreibweise) bezieht, stammt vom 12. August 1201.

Schon 1222 war Tost Sitz eines Burggrafen und Hauptort der Herrschaft. 1536 wurde der Gemeinde Tost von König Ferdinand von Böhmen das Stadtrecht verliehen. 1593 verkaufte König Rudolf das Schloss und die Herrschaft an den Freiherrn von Redern auf Groß Strehlitz. Am 18. August 1677 brannte die Stadt völlig ab.

1807 kam es zur Brandschatzung der Stadt durch die Bayern.

Am 29. März 1811 brannte die Toster Burg ab. Seitdem blieb sie nur noch als Burgruine erhalten. Von den vorher vier erhaltenen Türmen verblieben drei.[2]

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Additional Photos by georg nowak (jurek1951) Gold Star Critiquer/Gold Star Workshop Editor/Gold Note Writer [C: 2669 W: 162 N: 5788] (42198)
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