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Timișoara (Romanian pronunciation: [timiˈʃo̯ara]; German: Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Hungarian: Temesvár, Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈtɛmɛʃvaːr]; Yiddish: טעמשוואר‎; Serbian: Темишвар, Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár; Turkish: Temeşvar) is the capital city of Timiș County, and the main social, economic and cultural centre in western Romania.
One of the largest Romanian cities (the third most populous city in the country, as of 2011 census), with a population of 319,279 inhabitants,Timișoara is considered the informal capital city of the historical region of Banat. The city is a candidate to become the 2021 European Capital of Culture.Timișoara lies at an altitude of 90 m on the southeast edge of the Banat plain, part of the Pannonian Plain near the divergence of the Timiș and Bega rivers. The waters of the two rivers form a swampy and frequently flooded land. Timișoara developed on one of few places where the swamps could be crossed. These constituted a natural protection around the fortress for a very long time, however, they also favoured a wet and insalubrious climate, as well as the proliferation of the plague and cholera, which kept the number of inhabitants at a relatively low number and significantly prevented the development of the city. With time, however, the rivers of the area were drained, dammed and diverted. Due to these hydrographical projects undertaken in the 18th century, the city no longer lies on the Timiș River, but on the Bega canal. This improvement of the land was made irreversible by building the Bega canal (started in 1728) and by the complete draining of the surrounding marshes. However, the land across the city lies above a water table at a depth of only 0.5 to 5 metres (1.6–16.4 feet), a factor which does not allow the construction of tall buildings. The rich black soil and relatively high water table make this a fertile agricultural region.This is a relatively active seismic area, and earthquakes up to 6 on the Richter scale have been recorded.As of 2011 census data, Timișoara has a population of 319,279, while the proposed Timișoara metropolitan area would have a population of 384,609.Of this population, 86.79% were ethnic Romanians, while 5.12% were Hungarians, 1.37% Germans, 1.3% Serbs, 0.69% Romani, 0.18% Ukrainians, 0.17% Slovaks, 0.11% Jews and 0.76% others.
Timișoara has been an important economic centre since the 18th century when the Habsburg administration was installed. Due to Austrian colonisation, ethnic and religious diversity and innovative laws, the economy began to develop. The technicians and craftsmen that settled in the city established guilds and helped develop the city's economy. Notably, in 1717, Timișoara became host to the first beer factory in what is now Romania.
During the Industrial Revolution, numerous modern innovations were introduced. It was the first city in the monarchy with street lighting, and the first city in mainland Europe illuminated by electric light. The Bega river was also channelled during this time. It was the first navigable canal on current Romanian territory. This way, Timișoara had contact with Europe, and even with the rest of the world through the Black Sea, leading to the local development of commercialism.In the 19th century, the railway system of the Hungarian Kingdom reached Timișoara.Timișoara was the first city in the country with international routes economic boom as the amount of foreign investment, especially in high-tech sectors, has risen. In terms of living standards, Timișoara ranks fourth nationwide. In an article in late 2005, French magazine L'Expansion called Timișoara Romania's economic showcase, and referred to the increased number of foreign investments as a "second revolution".
Apart from domestic local investment, there has been significant foreign investment from the European Union, particularly from Germany and Italy. Continental AG has produced tires since opening a plant in 2000. The Linde Group produces technical gases, and a part of the wiring moulds for BMW and Audi vehicles are produced by the company Dräxlmaier Group locally. Wiring for Volkswagen and other vehicles are produced at the German company Kromberg & Schubert. Also, Swiss company FM Logistic, already present in Timiș County for Nestlé, P&G and in Bucharest for Cora, L'Oréal, Sanofi Aventis and Yves Rocher, and for companies like PROFI Rom Foods, BIC, Kraft Foods or SCA Packaging—offering them domestic transport services and international transport services for Bricostore, Arctic, Danone, Unilever or Contitech, the growth of FM Logistic in Romania and in Dudești through its first warehouse in Romania (Dudeștii Noi gives FM the opportunity). Nestlé produces waffles here. Among the chain restaurants present are Mcdonald's, KFC, Pizza Hut, Subway and Starbucks.
The city has three shopping malls: Bega Shopping Center, Iulius Mall Timișoara (the second largest in Romania) and Shopping City Timişoara.
The USA company Flextronics maintains a workplace in the west of the city for the production of mobile telephony and government inspection department devices. In 2009, the company laid off 640 workers. The American company Procter & Gamble manufactures washing and cleaning agents in Timișoara. Smithfield Foods—the world's largest pork processor and hog producer—has two subsidiaries in Timișoara and Timiș County: Smithfield Ferme and Smithfield Prod.Like most of Romania, Timișoara experienced economic slowdown in 2009, due to the global economic downturn.

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Photo Information
  • Copyright: Nikola Nadas (NickVu) Silver Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 11 W: 0 N: 180] (187)
  • Genre: Places
  • Medium: Color
  • Date Taken: 2016-05-28
  • Categories: Daily Life
  • Exposure: 1/74 seconds
  • Photo Version: Original Version
  • Date Submitted: 2016-05-29 15:34
Viewed: 1102
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Additional Photos by Nikola Nadas (NickVu) Silver Star Critiquer/Gold Note Writer [C: 11 W: 0 N: 180] (187)
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